Friday, May 29, 2009

Sultan Sharif Ali

the tomb of sultan sharif ali at Kota Batu

Sutan Sharif Ali was the third sultan of Brunei. He was also known as Barkat Ali Ibnu Sharif Ajlan Ibni Sharif Rumaithah. He was made Sultan after Sultan Ahmad died without leaving any male descendants,and as such, at the request of the people of Brunei themselves, he become eligible for the throne after marrying Sultan Ahmad's daughter, Puteri Ratna Kesuma.

Sharif Ali was a very pious ruler and was therefore nicknamed "Sultan Berkat" (Blessed Sultan). He was the first sultan to build a mosque, and fortified the defense of Brunei by ordering his people to build a stone fortress. Sharif Ali governed Brunei according to Islamic principles and his reign was popular and highly respected. After his death, Sharif Ali was succeeded by his son Sulaiman.

The royal symbol origin came from the world largest seed called "Coco De Mer".

Sultan Sharif Ali was the direct-descendant of Muhammad. His grandchild, was Saidina Hassan r.a. Sultan Sharif Ali was the ancestor of the Brunei & Sulu royal families.

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien 3

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien 3 was born on 23 september 1914 at Istana Kota, Kampong Sultan Lama, Brunei Town (now Bandar Seri Begawan). He was the 28th sultan of Brunei. He was installed as the 28th sultan of Brunei on June 14, 1950 & was crowned on May 31, 1951.

He was the seventh child of Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam 2 and Raja Isteri Fatimah and the second surviving son of the couple with his elderly brother who would later become Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin.
Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien studied at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar in Perak, Malaya from 1932 to 1936. After finishing education in Malaya, His Highness then came back to Brunei in 1936 to work in the Foresrty Department, Kuala Belait as a Cadet Officer. In 1938, he was transferred to the Judiciary Department also in Kuala Belait in 1937.

He was conferred with the title Pengiran Bendahara Seri Maharaja Permaisuara by his brother, Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin on 15 July 1947. He was subsequently appointed as a member of Brunei State Council and Chairman of the Syariah Court.

On the death of his brother, leaving no male heirs on 4 June 1950, he was proclaimed as the next Sultan on the 6th June 1950.
In the early era of his rule, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien focused on raising Brunei's standard of living. His top priority was providing adequate education. Several primary and secondary schools were built throughout the nation to ensure that all citizens could attend formal schooling. A free-food scheme was introduced in rural schools and students with distinction results were sent abroad for higher education. In 1953, he introduced the first national development plan with an allocation of $100 million. The plan's aims included providing basic education to all districts; improving communication systems; raising the quality of medical and health services; increasing agricultural products as well as providing basic services such as roads, electricity and water to all the people.
In 1952 Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien worked for the implementation of the Brunei written constitution as the foundation of governance and the achievement of independence from Britain. Discussions with the British government culminated in the signing of the Brunei written constitution and the Brunei Agreement on 29 September 1959 at the Lapau in Bandar Seri Begawan. Among other things, the constitution stipulated that Malay and Islam are, respectively, to be the official language and the official religion of Brunei. At the same time, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien had consented to the formation of the Brunei Malay Regiment, which was elevated to the Royal Brunei Armed Forces after independence.
After ruling for 17 years, on 4 October 1967, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien willingly abdicated in favour of his eldest son, His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah.
Brunei achieved its independence on 1 January 1984 as promised by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien. Although he had abdicated, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien continued to play an important role as a mentor to his son, as the first Brunei Defence Minister until his death on 7 September 1986.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien's reign was marked by so much progress that he is known as the "Architect of Modern Brunei". In recognition of his contributions, on October 1970, His Majesty Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, had consented to rename Brunei Town, Brunei's capital to Bandar Seri Begawan, after his father's title, further several institutions and places in Brunei were named after him: the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque; Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien College; the Seri Begawan Religious Teaching College; the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien Institute of Islamic studies of Universiti Brunei Darussalam; the Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Science College; and the Taman Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien in the capital

Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah

Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, the
Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam, GCB GCMG (born 15 July 1946) is the 29th Sultan of Brunei, the eldest son of Omar Ali Saifuddien III, the previous Sultan of Brunei, and Pengiran Anak Damit.

The Sultan currently has two wives, with Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Hajah Saleha being designated his first wife. His former second wife, Pengiran Isteri Hajah Mariam, was a former stewardess for the national carrier, Royal Brunei Airlines (RBA) whom he divorced in 2003, stripping her of all her royal titles. In August 2005 her place was taken by a former Malaysian TV3 presenter, Azrinaz Mazhar Hakim, who is 33 years younger than the Sultan.

Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. On 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have changed Brunei's constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law.[2] Bolkiah is also the Prime Minister of Brunei, as well as holding the portfolios of Defence and Finance.
He addressed the
United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalam's admission to the United Nations in September, 1984. In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB) (or Malay Islamic Monarchy), which presents the monarchy as the defender of the faith.[3] He has recently favoured partial democratisation. In 2004, the Legislative Council, which had been dissolved since 1962, was reopened.[4]
His designated successor is his eldest son, Al-Muhtadee Billah.

He was born on 15 July 1946 in Brunei Town (now called Bandar Seri Begawan). He became crown prince in 1961 and sultan on 5 October 1967, after his father abdicated voluntarily. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968. Like his father, he has been knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984.
The Sultan received high school education in Malaysia's premier school
Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, where he joined the Cadet Corps (Band). After receiving a private education in Brunei, the Sultan attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in October 1967 but returned home to be the Crown Prince few months before graduation, and has since received an honorary doctorate from a Russian university[citation needed].
His Majesty has also been awarded an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of Oxford, England, UK and an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. He also received a Honorary Doctorate from the Chulalongkorn University of Thailand.
In 2003, received Honorary Doctorate Degree in Humanities and Culture by the Gadjah Mada University, UGM, Yogyakarta, Republic of Indonesia.
[5] On the 27 January 2005, the Sultan was awarded and made an Honorary Doctor of Laws by the National University of Singapore.

The Sultan is famous for his vast automobile collection. In 1998, the British car magazine Autocar published undercover photographs of the Sultan's cars, which included unique modifications of Ferraris and Bentleys. It has been said that he has at least 3,000 to 6,000 cars and has bought over U.S.$4 billion worth of cars.
The number purchased by his business interests and the number actually used by himself and his family differ greatly. According to
Guinness World Records the Sultan's personal private collection has 500 Rolls-Royces — the largest collection of that marque in the world. During the 1990s, his family accounted for almost half of all Rolls-Royce purchases, bulk buying slightly modified vehicles for diplomats and adding unique cars to their own collection. He also owns the very last Rolls-Royce Phantom VI, a 1992 state landaulette.
Among his collection are the
Porsche Carrera GT, Lamborghini Diablo Jota, Porsche 959, Bugatti EB110, Lamborghini Murcielago LP640, Maybach 62, Jaguar XJR-15 and six Dauer 962's. He is also the owner of six models of the Ferrari FX, the original red show model of the Bentley Continental R, two fully operational versions of the Ferrari Mythos concept car, both of the Ferrari 456 GT Sedans, the only right hand drive Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR in the world, five McLaren F1's including both black LM models and three Cizeta-Moroder V16T cars. He also possesses a Formula One car as driven by every Formula 1 World Drivers Champion since the 1980 Formula One season, particularly the ones driven in the last race for each season. A prime example of this is Jacques Villeneuve's Williams FW19 which still bears the collision damage courtesy of Michael Schumacher in the 1997 European Grand Prix.
He has a special interest in buying one-of-a-kind concept cars, including the
Bentley Java and Bentley Dominator 4x4, whilst leaving slightly more common race cars such as the Aston Martin AM3 or the modified Mercedes-Benz 300SL to his brother Jefri. The collection of vehicles was for the most part stored and serviced in five aircraft hangars, where specialist teams from the various manufacturers would maintain the collection.

The Loss of Labuan

THE history of Brunei's nearest island, Labuan, just off Brunei Bay had its start in the early days of the Brooke interference in Brunei's affairs. Labuan, until its forcible take over by the British in 1846 had been under the rule of the Sultan of Brunei ever since the Sultanate began.

Similarly, from the 14th century, the territory around Sarawak River (today's Kuching) was a province of Brunei. Its administration was headed by Datu Pattingi Sarawak who reported to a Cheteria, both appointed by the Sultan of Brunei. In 1824, the Cheteria was Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Mohamed Salleh.

Pengiran Indera Mahkota was educated in Batavia (Jakarta) and furthered his studies in Netherlands. In 1827, he was appointed as Governor of Sarawak. Sarawak flourished under him. He also developed its trade and increased its revenue by exporting antimony.

Antimony was used in the making of alloys. To get the antimony, local residents were forced to work in his mines.

In 1839, the residents there rebelled against him because of his oppressive rule. Brunei sent Pengiran Muda Hashim, the son of Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam to deal with the rebellion.

James Brooke attracted by the richness of the area also came there. Pengiran Muda Hashim asked for Brooke's assistance because Pengiran Muda Hashim had a long standing resentment against Pengiran Indera Mahkota. Five years earlier, Pengiran Muda Hashim visited Kuching but when he arrived, he was not personally welcomed by Pengiran Indera Mahkota.

Pengiran Indera Mahkota as the Governor of Sarawak opted to wait at the Hall of Audience instead.

At first James Brooke refused to help Pengiran Muda Hashim, but Brooke came back the next year and helped Pengiran Muda Hashim because he was offered the governorship of Sarawak in replacement of Pengiran Indera Mahkota if he could end the rebellion. Brooke managed to end the rebellion but he was not offered the governorship until he forced the issue in 1841. In 1842, Brooke sailed to Brunei to be confirmed Governor in exchange for paying an annual tribute.

In 1845 Pengiran Muda Hashim returned from Sarawak to Brunei, accompanied by a British naval captain, Sir Edward Blecher.

While in Sarawak, Pengiran Muda Hashim had lost his high status at home due to a palace coup in Brunei. His opponent Pengiran Usop has become Bendahara in his absence.

Brooke and the British Naval Forces forcibly re-installed Pengiran Muda Hashim as the Bendahara. Pengiran Muda Hashim also secured official recognition to become the next Sultan of Brunei.

This upset the chances of Pengiran Temenggong Pengiran Anak Hashim, the son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifudin II, who plotted to kill Pengiran Muda Hashim.

As might be expected, the foreign intervention in Brunei caused a great deal of unhappiness in the Brunei Court, Pengiran Muda Hashim was hated as he was regarded to be Brooke's protégé and his family's arrogant manner alienated the other Brunei nobles. In 1846, Pengiran Muda Hashim was murdered. Ranjit Singh in his book, Brunei 1839-1983 argued that the murder was not necessarily because it was an anti-British movement. Another view was that this was the culmination of a long drawn out feud between two branches of the royal family.

However Brooke considered the murder to be an insult to Britain. He asked Rear Admiral Thomas Cochrane that Brunei be punished.

The British hearing of these events, and pressured by British commercial interests, decided that this is a good opportunity for them to occupy Labuan. The other western powers had expanded in the region that Britain too realised the need to have a permanent harbour in northwestern Borneo.

Labuan was considered as a safe shelter and strategically sited to protect British interest in the region especially the China trade route. With the assistance of Brooke, Britain now sought to take over Labuan.

The Rear Admiral sent British warships from Singapore. In Brunei, there were minor exchanges of fire but the British gunships were able to destroy much of Brunei's defences.

The Sultan had to flee to Damuan. But Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II was eventually persuaded to return to accept the terms imposed by Brooke. The Sultan was also forced to sign a treaty on 2nd August 1846 allowing Brooke to become Sarawak's independent ruler and given territories from Tanjung Datu to Samarahan River. James Brooke now became the Rajah of Sarawak.

In a book written by Frank Maryatt, Borneo and the Indian Archipelago published in 1848, the description of the pressure that faced the Sultan was very intense. He, a midshipman with HMS Samarang was part of the party that came to seek an audience with the Sultan.

He was "ordered to lie on her oars abreast of the audience chamber, and to keep her 6-pounder, in where there was a fearful dose of grape and canister, pointed at the Sultan himself during the whole of the interview".

At the same time, in the main street (of the river), "lay the steamer, with a spring on her cable, her half ports up, and guns loaded to the muzzle, awaiting, as by instruction, for the discharge of the gun from the barge, to follow up the work of death. The platform admitted one of the steamer's guns to look into the audience chamber, the muzzle was pointed direct at the sultan, a man held the lighted tow in his hand. Every European on board had his musket ready loaded".

The British was surprised that despite such intense pressure, the Bruneians did not show any sign of fear. Frank Maryatt described the atmosphere "considering the natives were well aware that our guns were directed against them, the self-possession and coolness shared by every one of them were worthy of admiration. They never showed the slightest emotion, their speeches were free from gesticulation, and even their threats were conveyed in a quiet subdued tone; and every thing was carried on with all the calmness and deliberations that might be expected at a cabinet council at St James".

Soon after the signing of the 1846 treaty, the British put pressure on Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II to cede Labuan to the British. The Sultan refused and employed delaying tactics.

However the British navy lined up British warships near the Sultan's palace with cannons ready to fire if the Sultan refused to sign the treaty. The Sultan had no choice.

He signed the Treaty of Labuan on 18th December 1846. Six days later, the British occupied the island. It was on 24 December 1846 when Captain Mundy, commanding HMS Iris, took possession of Labuan, "in the Name of Her Majesty Victoria Queen of Great Britain and Ireland under the Direction of His Excellency Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane, C.B., Commander-in-Chief".

The loss of Labuan was a big blog blow to Brunei. Labuan was considered as its only gateway in the sea to the outside world.

Subsequently Labuan became a Crown Colony in 1848 and part of North Borneo in 1890. It joined the Straits Settlements in 1906. During World War II, Labuan was occupied by the Japanese and renamed as Maida Island. Labuan joined British North Borneo in July 1946 and became part of Malaysia as the state of Sabah in 1963. In 1984 Labuan was ceded by Sabah to the federal government and made a federal territory.

resources-The Brunei Times

Brunei Civil War

During the reign of Sultan Muhammad Ali(1660-1661),there was a misunderstanding between the son-in-law of Sultan Muhammad Ali by the name of Pengiran Muda Bungsu and the son of Pengiran Bendahara Pengiran Abdul Mubin over the results of a cock fight.Pengiran Muda Bungsu lost the game.His defeat was jeered by the son of Pengiran Muda Bendahara Pengiran Abdul Mubin.In his anger,he killed the son of Pengiran Muda Bendahar Pengiran Abdul Mubin.

In act of revenge,Pengiran Bendahara Pengiran Abdul Mubin killed Sultan Muhammad Ali and made himself sultan.He was then known as Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin.To avoid anger among the families of the late sultan,Sultan Abdul Mubin appointed Pengiran Muda Bungsu,the son-in-law of Sultan Muhammad Ali who had killed his son,as Bendahara.However ,this appointment did not settle the problem as desired by the Sultan.

The new bendahara planned to avenge the death of Sultan Muhammad Ali thus creating chaos in Brunei.Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin moved to Pulau Chermin. As soon as Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin moved to Pulau Chermin,Pengiran Bendahara Bungsu declared himself Sultan.He called himself Sultan Muhyddin.Brunei therefore had two sultans.This incident led to outbreak of the civil war in Brunei.

As there were now two sultans in Brunei,the people had to take sides.A civil war started and fighting continued until 1673.Eventually,the Sultan Of Sulu sent his soldiers to support Sultan Muhyiddin.Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin was killed.

It is not clear to historions whether Sultan Muhyiddin asked for Sulu's help.However,the Sultan Of Sulu,on his part,claimed that he was asked to help and promised the land of Sabah as a reward.Brunei denied this.From that time onwards,bothe Brunei and Sulu claimed control of the land.

History for Brunei Darussalam:
Sharing OUR past;
Secondary 3


From the Chinese records, called the ruler of Poni, Ma-ha-mo-sha in 1371.The Founding of Brunei can be traced back to a story of Awang Alak Betatar and his 13 brothers.

In Garang, a place in the Temburong District, lived Awang Alak Betatar and his 13 brothers. Awang Alak Betatar was chosen as their leader because of his intelligence.
One day, Awang Alak Betatar called brothers for meeting to find a new place to live.
A week later, Awang Alak Betatar’s brothers, led by Pateh Berbai, began their search. They landed at a site called Butir on the Brunei River.
Pateh Berbai and his brothers went back to Garang to tell Awang Alak Betatar the good news. Awang Alak Betatar agreed to his brothers.

Weeks later , Awang Alak Betatar and his brothers sailed together with their followers to establish the new settlement which was to became Brunei Town. Then they began clearing the bushes and cleaning the area.
Each of Awang Alak Betatar’s brothers set up his own house. Soon, more and more people came to settle there and Awang Alak Betatar became the first ruler of Brunei.

Friday, April 10, 2009

Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1828-1852)

1839- Arrival of James Brooke in Sarawak
James Brooke makes use of the friction between nobles Pengiran Muda Hashim (Son Of The Sultan Muahammad Kanzul Alam) and Pengiran Indera Mahkota, the Governor of Sarawak to intervene in Sarawak's affairs.

August 1842
- James Brooke signed Treaty with SOAS II
- James Brooke becomes the new governor of Brunei

-British invaded and occupied Brunei town when Pengiran Muda Hashim was killed in Royal Family feud
-August 1846, James Brooke became the Raja of Sarawak
-December 1846, the Cession of Labuan to the British


History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing Our past
Secondary 1 & 2;
Curriculum Development Department
Ministry of Education Brunei
Page- 60